Book 9 part 1 of Plato’s Republic this is a librivox recording all librivox recordings are in the public domain for more information or to volunteer please visit librivox.org recording by Geoffrey Edwards the Republic by Plato translated by Benjamin Jowett book 9 part 1 last of all comes the tyrannical man about whom we have once more to ask how.
Is he formed out of the democratical and how does he live in happiness or in misery yes he said he is the only one remaining there is however I said a previous question.
Which remains unanswered what question I do not think that we have adequately determined the nature and number of the appetites and until this is accomplished the inquiry will always be confused well he said it is not too late to supply the omission very true I said and observed the point which I want to understand certain of the unnecessary pleasures and appetites I conceive to be unlawful everyone appears to have them but in some persons they are controlled by the laws.
And by reason and the better desires prevail over them.
Either they are wholly banished or they become few and weak on the case of others they are stronger and there are more of them which appetites do you mean I mean those which.
Are awake when the reasoning and human and ruling power is asleep then the wild beast within us gorged with meat or drink starts up and having shaken off sleep goes forth to satisfy his desires and there is no conceivable folly or.
Crime not excepting incest or any other unnatural Union or parasite or the eating of forbidden food which at such a time when he has parted company with all.
Shame and sense a man may not be ready to commit most true he said but when a man’s pulse is healthy and temperate and when before going to sleep he has awakened his rational powers and fed them on noble thoughts and enquiries collecting himself in meditation after having first indulged his appetites neither too much nor too little but just enough to lay them to sleep and prevent them and their enjoyments and pains from interfering with the higher principle which he leaves in.
The solitude of pure abstraction free to contemplate and aspire to the knowledge of the unknown whether in past present or future but again he has allayed the passionate element if he has a quarrel against anyone I say when after pacifying the.
Two irrational principles he rouses up the third which is reason before he takes his rest then as you know he attains truth most nearly and is.
Least likely to be the sport of fantastic and lawless visions I quite agreed in saying this I have been running into a digression but the point which I desire to note is that in all of us even in good men there is a.
Lawless wild beast nature which peers out in sleep prey consider whether I am right and you agree with me yes I agree and now remember the character which we attributed to the Democratic man he was supposed from his youth upwards to have been trained under a miserly parent encouraged the saving appetites in him but discountenance the unnecessary which came only at amusement and ornament true and.
Then he got into the company of a more refined licentiousness rushed into the opposite extreme fornum abhorrence of his father’s meanness at last.